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Moreover, several wood defects like knots and ring shake were identified

Moreover, several wood defects like knots and ring shake were identified

Sopra fact, summer sultriness is particularly high during August per South Italy

As referred sopra the retroterra section, the carefully con situ observation of the Altar Machine allowed detect several damages on the wood elements like cracks, deformations, surface detachments and scratches, dust layers, colour modifications, and many holes caused by the insects. Wood deterioration was coppia puro the manufacturing process, onesto the Altar Machine usage, and esatto the microclimate per the apsidal reparto of the church. The numerous galleries produced by the xylophagous insects weakened the wood, making the substitution of elements or the introduction of plugs necessary.

The identification of the wood species was undertaken because the diagnosis of the botanical species represents per great importance in the technological and historical Come messaggio di qualcuno luxy artistic study of per wooden artefact paio puro possible implications relating sicuro the conservation. In fact, every species exhibits peculiar characteristics that delineate the physical, mechanical and durability properties of the material as features of the xylem of the tree botanical species.

The species identification allowed preciso find six different kinds of wood that were used in relation onesto the technological characteristics of the altar elements. The results are summarized per Table 3.

The wood species used for the Machine elements could be easily found on the territory of Gangi. The availability and the cost of timber influenced the choice of the wood by local artisans . The presence of Picea abies Karst con the tabernacle can be probably traced back to a restoration intervention. In fact, this alpine species, paio to its excellent technological characteristics, has been widely marketed and often has been found sopra restored wooden structures per Sicily .

Chestnut wood was used durante the back structural elements of the altar due esatto its excellent physical and mechanical properties per relation sicuro the density. Moreover, the chestnut wood has per natural durability and it exhibits a moderate shrinking [21, 22]. Chestnut wood has been used mediante Italy especially for roof beams and also for the outer surface of the doors paio sicuro the properties of its heartwood. The chestnut heartwood has a natural pleasant colour that darkens during time [23, 24].

The walnut wood was found mediante the winch drum (cylindrical element on which the ropes are wrapped sopra order to raise the statue). The use of this species is related mainly onesto the low coefficient of shrinkage that ensures dimensional stability during the thermo hygrometric variations .

The different species within the Pinus, Quercus, and Populus genera cannot be distinguished exclusively on the basis of anatomical features [21, 25–27]. Therefore the identification of botanical species was not obtained.

Pine wood has been used for the realization of some plugging elements on the back side of the Machine. These elements probably were movable, but today we are not able sicuro understand their function.

The decoration elements are made of poplar, a wood species widely used durante Italy for the creation of painted panels and other decorated works of art [21, 28]. Per fact, it is characterized by low density, easy seasoning and processing, and colour homogeneity that make it particularly suited esatto apply the painted layers, in spite of this wood could be easily attacked by xylophages.

Microclimatic analysis

The microclimate campaign was carried out during the summer that can be considered the most critical period for the artefact. Moreover, con August the Machine is moved on the occasion of religious celebrations and many people crowd the church influencing the microclimate.

It must be stressed that the monitoring campaign was short but, we think, significant and useful for the purpose of this rete di emittenti that is the overall study of verso peculiar and interesting artefact with the hope that it could be restored and conserved in the most appropriate way.